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Microorganisms

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Micro -organism is the generic name given all organisms, of any system which are not visible to the naked eyes. The micro - organisms include bacteriums, moulds , protozoans, enzymes and virus and represent the lowest form of life.

BACTERIA
The bacteria, because of their microscopic sizes and their environmental and feeding necessities, are the most widely spread living creatures. They can be everywhere: in the ground, in the water and in the air. They have a very little morphological difference and a spherical or like small sticks shape. In virtue of their small sizes, the bacteria have a high surface-volume ratio, which gives a quick metabolism and a fast growth. They have four main forms: roundish or cocchi ones, cylindrical bacillus, curved (crooked) or spirals vibrioni or spirilli, filamentous or attinomiceti. The bacteria capsule has a covering part (bacterical wall) which covers a plasma membrane; this covering part, composed of many layers, serves to mantain the form and the hardness of the cell. Outside the wall it is possible to find a light cap composed of polysaccharides secerned by the cell herself. The bacteria do not have a real nucleus with a membrane which can divide it from the cytoplasm and no chromosomes which can be morphologically identified: a bacterial chromosome is an only molecule of DNA which has the whole essential genetic information for a specific species. Some bacteria have got special wrappings (spores) which present a great resistance to the ageing and to all agents of destruction. In particular situations, with high temperature or utmost of ambient dryness , they do not loose their multiplying capacity. The spores sprout when there are good environmental conditions.

MOULDS
With respect to all other living forms, the moulds have a much more different structure, with a cellular nucleus, and by consequence they belong to the family of the Eucarioti. Independently from their taxonomical classification, all mushrooms whose spawn is often visible on nourishments , are called moulds. There are generallymany microscopic mushrooms like Aspergillus, Mucor, Pennicillium. They live as saprophytes on different organic substances, by forming with their fruitful bodies a dusty efflorescence (spawn), which often has green, blue, brown or black colours, that is the mouldy aliments characteristic. The moulds are aerobe and, to grow, they need an ambient rich in oxygen, by consequence they develop themselves especially on contamined substratums surfaces. The minimum of oxygen necessary to develop the moulds can be different. In anaerobiosi conditions, some species, like the Mucor, can ferment; but in these conditions their development stops after a short period. In comparison with the bacteriums, the moulds can better survive to extreme ambiental conditions. They can resist to the pH reductions and the water content or to low temperatures, showing a less drastic inhibition of developping in comparison with most part of the bacteria. Many moulds have a great importance in medicine for their capacity of elaborating different chemical compounds (antibiotics) which have a great effect to heal many infectious diseases. Many of them, therefore, are also human being, animals or plants parasites and can seriously impair them.

VIRUSES
The virus form a group of obliged intracellular parasites. They have a biological organization represented by a sub-cellular standard of constitution as they are essentially formed by generic material composed by acido nucleico (DNA or RNA) held in a container of proteic nature (capside) which helps to protect the viral genoma . The virus do not have systems to produce energy or autonomous biosintetiche capacities; so they can only express their pathogenic power when their genoma, introduced in a cell, is completed at the guest cell expense. The virus are considered as agents responsible for some of the human being , animals plants and some bacteria themselves diseases (bacteriofagism).

ALLERGENS
The attention given to what we eat and drink must also be given to the air around us. Dust contains viruses, bacteria, chemical pollutants and mites. All allergens responsible for respiratory problems are of minute dimensions, microns in size, and thus can remain suspended at length in invisible environmental dust where we live. Sneezing, stuffy nose, red watering eyes, difficult breathing and headaches are the typical signs of allergies 1rom both pollen and dust. The fact that the feces of mites are rich in allergens has moved the attention of researchers from the mites themselves to their excrements and has posed the problem of determining the allergenic power of micro-environments. In fact both mites and their debris are rarely present in suspended air, but particles of their feces are abundant. During normal breathing these particles present in the air are inhaled and enter deeplv into the lungs and bronchial tubes. There exists a correlation between the level of airbound allergens inhaled and the incidence of allergic manifestations. Taking preventive action with the Germicidal Lamps is fundamental.



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